Unfortunately, this sort of thing is becoming more common. I have a relative who is dealing with a number of medical issues, none of which are life threatening, but which mean that he has seen a number of doctors, to address any number of issues. The information he receives is pitifully inadequate. Time and time again, he ends up getting sketchy, inadequate, or even incorrect information from a nurse, with little or no concrete information from the physician.Sorry you had to go through this.
The receptionist works for the doctors. They are responsible for what goes on in their office and by their employees, and how the employees are trained. The doctors are the ones making pretty decent money off you. It's bad form imo to blame the lowest paid staff for something the bosses should be ensuring. If the receptionist is really at fault after training, warnings, etc., then the doctors are responsible for firing them or giving them tasks that don't carry health risks.
Personally, I’d dig in my heels, but not everyone is wired that way. I ask to see lab reports, keep notes, etc. but for someone less assertive, getting accurate information may be all but impossible.